ELISA antibody

What is Elisa Blood Test

The automated ELISA system combined with blood comb sampling is an accurate test format for the detection of anti-AMDV antibodies in mink blood and offers several advantages, including improved blood sampling and data handling, fast sample throughput time, and reductions in costs and labour inputs.

Elisa Blood Test Background

Aleutian disease (AD), a common and economically significant disease in farmed mink (Neovison vison), is caused by Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). The virus belongs to the recently renamed species of Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1 of the family Parvoviridae. AMDV has a single-stranded DNA genome and encodes three non-structural (NS1, NS2, and NS3) and two structural proteins (VP1 and VP2) . The clinical presentation of AMDV infection varies from a non-progressive and non-persistent disease to a progressive, persistent, and potentially fatal immune complex disease (so-called classical AD) . Susceptibility to disease persistence and progression depends on host and viral factors, and clinical disease is more severe in Aleutian genotype mink . Infected adult mink typically develop high concentrations of anti-AMDV antibodies, which can be detected with counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) from 5 days to 7 weeks post-infection .

In 2005, the Finnish Fur Breeders' Association (FFBA) implemented an eradication programme to depopulate AMDV-infected farms and reduce the overall prevalence of AMDV, and consequently, to improve the health status of animals and reduce economic losses to farmers caused by AD. Control and eradication of AMDV on farms currently depend on serological screening and culling of anti-AMDV antibody-positive animals, strict sanitary measures, disinfection of cages and equipment, and introduction of replacement animals from low-risk farms. In the programme, farms are classified into 5 groups, A-E, according to AMDV seroprevalence. In group A, test prevalence must be zero. In groups B, C, and D, within-farm prevalence should not exceed 1, 2, and 50 positive/1000 breeding females, respectively. In group E, prevalence exceeds 50 positive/1000 breeding females. Fin Furlab (formerly Fur Animal Feed Laboratory) tests 500,000 to 600,000 samples annually for anti-AMDV antibodies. From 2000 to 2012, the annual mean seroprevalence of all tested animals ranged between 3.3% and 13.6%.

A need for an automated replacement test for the traditionally used CIEP method arose due to implementation of an eradication programme, which led to increased numbers of samples, demand for an additional labour force, and problems in the availability of the CIEP antigen. The aim of this study was to automate and validate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting anti-AMDV antibodies in blood of farmed mink. Additional objectives were to compare the sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) of ELISA and CIEP, develop a simple blood sampling method for ELISA, improve the sample throughput time, and decrease the labour intensity and costs of testing. Results of this study are reported according to standards for the reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) statement , with some modifications for livestock studies .

Sampling Protocol and Study Design

Blood samples were collected during a routine screening for anti-AMDV antibodies by toenail cutting by a professional sample collector (Tarja Hinkkanen, FFBA), who took both the glass capillary tube (80μl of blood) and blood comb (3μl of blood is expected to saturate each comb) samples. Both samples were taken at the same time from each animal. Blood comb samples were air-dried prior to transportation. Samples were transported at ambient temperature to Fin Furlab the same day, the capillaries were centrifuged, and both samples were stored at +4°C. The following day, the blood combs were analysed with ELISA and the sera from the glass capillaries with CIEP.

Sample collection was planned before the ELISA and CIEP tests were performed (prospective study), and cross-sectional sampling with complete verification with the reference test was done.

Learn more applications of ELISA:

ELISA For Blood Test Related Studies

1. Olli Vapalahti et al.(2014) Validation of an automated ELISA system for detection of antibodies to Aleutian mink disease virus using blood samples collected in filter paper strips. Virology Journal.11:141.