- ELISA for Influenza
- ELISA for AIDS
- ELISA for Hemolytic Anemia
- ELISA for Lyme disease
- ELISA for Food Allergy
- ELISA for RMSF
- ELISA for Chagas disease
- ELISA for Leishmaniasis
- ELISA for Ebola HF
- ELISA for Monkeypox
- Novel Coronavirus 2012 (NCoV)
- Coronavirus Symptoms / NCoV Symptoms
- New SARS-like Virus
- SARS Coronavirus
- Human Coronavirus
- Coronavirus Vaccine
- Novel Coronavirus (NCoV) Infection
- Coronavirus Treatment / NCoV Treatment
- Coronavirus Vaccine
- Human Coronavirus (HCoV) Protein & Antibody
- Novel Coronavirus (HCoV-EMC/2012) Spike & Antibody
- Novel coronavirus (HCoV-EMC/2012) Nucleoprotein & Antibody
- Human Cronavirus (HCoV) Spike Glycoprotein & Antibody
- Human Coronavirus (HCoV) HKU1 Spike & Antibody
- H7N9 Proteins & Antibodies
- H7N9 HA / Hemagglutinin Protein
- Influenza A H7N9 NA / Neuraminidase Proteins
- H7N9 M1 / Matrix Protein 1
- H7N9 Antibodies
- H7N9 cDNA Clones
- Influenza A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9)
- Influenza A/Shanghai/1/2013 (H7N9)
- Influenza A/Hangzhou/1/2013 (H7N9)
- Influenza A/Pigeon/Shanghai/S1069/2013 (H7N9)
- H7N9 HA / Hemagglutinin Proteins & Antibodies
As to better illustrate how ELISA test works, this section took a deeper insight into: a definition of the 'sensitivity', standard curve calculation, and control samples in ELISA test, followed by a list of diseases in which ELISA test could be applied.
The factors that determine the ultimate sensitivity of a competitive ELISA test are the antibody affinity constant and the experimental errors. The detection limit of the substrate is not typically limiting. It has been calculated theoretically that with a K = 1012 M-1 (an extraordinarily high equilibrium constant for an antigen-antibody interaction) and a 1% co-efficient of variation (CV) for the response at zero dose, the lowest detection limit possible would be 10-14 M. A more easily achievable limit would be 10-9 - 10-10 M. The factors limiting the sensitivity of a sandwich ELISA test are the affinity of the antibody, the experimental errors and the nonspecific binding of the labeled antibody, expressed as a percentage of the total antibody. It has been estimated that with a K = 1012 M-1, 1% CV of the response at zero dose, and a 1% nonspecific binding of the labeled antibody, the detection limit can be as low as 10-16 M. In addition, this can be enhanced further by using more sensitive detection substrates.
ELISA Test-Calculation from the standard curve
Create a standard curve by plotting the mean absorbance for each standard concentration (x axis) against the target protein concentration (Y axis). Draw a best fit curve through the points in the graph (A suitable computer program is suggested for this). We recommend including a standard on each ELISA test plate to provide a standard curve for each plate used. To determine the concentration of target protein concentration in each sample:
First, find the mean absorbance value of the sample. From the X axis of the standard curve graph, extend a horizontal line from this absorbance value to the standard curve. E.g if the absorbance reading is 1, extend the line from this absorbance point on the X axis. If the samples that have an absorbance value falling out of the range of the standard curve, these samples should be diluted before proceeding with the ELISA test staining. For these samples, the concentration obtained from the standard curve when analyzing the results must be multiplied by the dilution factor.
The coefficient of variation (CV) is the ratio of the standard deviation σ to the mean µ:
This is expressed as a percentage of variance to the mean and therefore indicates any inconsistencies and inaccuracies in the results. This sets a standard for the quality of the validated results. Computer programs can be used to calculate the CV values from ELISA test results.
ELISA Test-Control samples
- Positive control
As for the positive control in an ELISA test, use either an endogenous soluble sample known to contain the protein you are detecting, or a purified protein or peptide known to contain the immunogen sequence for the antibody you are using. A positive result from the positive control, even if the samples are negative, will indicate the procedure is optimized and working. It will verify that any negative results are valid. Any tissues, cells or lysates that have been used successfully can be considered a suitable positive control. Try looking at the Swiss-Prot or Omnigene database links on the datasheet. These databases will often have a list of tissues that the protein is expressed in. These can also be considered suitable positive controls. Check the GeneCards entry for the protein. This will usually provide you with relative levels of expression in various tissues. If you still have difficulty finding a suitable control, we recommend doing a quick literature search on PubMed to see which tissues and cells express the protein of interest.
- Negative control
The negative control in an ELISA test means a sample known not to express the protein you are detecting. This is to check for non-specific binding and false positive results. Each plate you use should contain a negative control sample in order to validate the results.
A sample containing a known concentration of the target protein from which the standard curve can be obtained.
- Standard in sample matrix (spike control)
When testing serum samples in ELISA tests, include a standard in normal diluent buffer as usual. But we recommend to also include a standard diluted in serum from the species you are testing. The two can then be compared to ensure there is no effect on the standard curve from other proteins in the serum. This is known as a spike control.
- Endogenous positive control
We recommend including an endogenous positive control if you are testing a recombinant protein sample. This should be an essential component of your experiment.
There are inherent difficulties with antibody detection of recombinant proteins that need to be considered. Folding of the recombinant protein may be different from the endogenous native form, and may prevent antibody access to the epitope. This is particularly the case with tagged proteins. Always ensure tags are placed on the N or C terminal end of the recombinant protein.
Most importantly, always ensure the recombinant protein includes the immunogen sequence of the antibody you are using. An endogenous positive control is important to validate the results, as well as to indicate how well the reagents (eg antibodies) and procedure are working.
ELISA Test Related Diseases
ELISA Test can be used to dignose diseases
- ELISA Test for HIV
- ELISA Test for Influenza
- ELISA Test for Hemolytic Anemia
- ELISA Test for Lyme disease
- ELISA Test for Food Allergy
- ELISA Test for RMSF
- ELISA Test for Chagas disease
- ELISA Test for Leishmaniasis
- ELISA Test for Ebola HF
- ELISA Test for Monkeypox
- ELISA Test for West Nile Virus